Getting a credit card can be exciting, but you need to choose wisely and apply with care. Find out about choosing the right card for you, and how to make a successful application without damaging your credit rating.
Choosing a credit card can mean digesting a lot of information and numbers – it’s much easier if you know what to look for.
Here are some key points:
The annual percentage rate (APR) is a measure of the overall cost of the card. However, you need to use it with care.
The way the APR is worked out is laid down in law and is based on certain assumptions.
This is necessary so you can compare one card with another, but it does mean it might not match up with how much it actually costs you.
This will depend on how you use the card – in other words, how much you spend on it each month, on purchases or other transactions, and how much you repay.
The APR assumes that you use it only for purchases, and doesn’t take into account the cost of balance transfers and cash withdrawals. It also ignores any introductory rates.
Borrowing on a credit card can give you a bit of extra flexibility – but make sure you choose the right card and pay it back in full each month if you can.
In short, it assumes that all your purchases are at the interest rate that will apply once the introductory period has ended, taking into account any annual or monthly fee.
It also assumes that you use the entire credit limit on day one and repay in equal monthly instalments over a year, without any further transactions.
Lenders have to include the APR in the credit agreement and the pre-contract credit information, and in most advertising, it can be used to compare different credit cards, but it should only be the starting point.
You also need to look at the individual interest rates for:
What suits one person might not suit another, if they have a different pattern of spending and repayments.
What you see isn’t always what you get. Some card providers set your interest rate based on your credit history.
This means that, if you don’t have a good credit rating, you might pay a higher rate of interest and so the APR might be higher than advertised.
Advertising will usually quote a ‘representative APR’ – one that most people (at least 51% or better) are offered.
If you have a poor credit history or are new to credit so have a ‘thin’ credit file, you might be charged a higher rate.
Ask the card provider for a quote before applying – see below.
The APR doesn’t include any charges for late payments, exceeding your credit limit or returned payments.
Card providers often tempt you with offers that last for a fixed period of time.
The most common is to pay 0% interest on things you buy or balance transfers (debt you transfer from another card).
In some cases the 0% offer might be on both purchases and balance transfers, but typically it’s just on balance transfers, or the introductory periods might be different. Check carefully what’s being offered.
A 0% purchase offer is a cheap way of borrowing when you need to buy something big.
But make sure you can pay it off in full before your introductory period ends, as otherwise, you’ll start paying interest at the APR rate.
You might not be able to transfer the balance to another card then, as the same offers might not be available, particularly if your credit rating has gone down in the meantime.
A balance transfer means moving your debt from one credit card to another.
There are some good introductory offers around, but check how long these last.
You will have to pay a fee, usually around 3% of the balance transferred, so you need to take this into account. Also, check if there’s a time limit on the transfer. If you don’t make at least the minimum payments throughout, the 0% offer might be withdrawn.
Some 0% balance transfer cards don’t charge a fee. This could be good value, even if the 0% period is shorter than on other cards, provided that you can afford to repay the debt before the introductory time ends.
Some cards come with benefits including:
Think before you opt for any of these. Are they worth your while?
They usually come at a price, such as a higher interest rate or an annual or monthly fee.
If you don’t plan to pay your balance back in full every month, use our Credit card calculator to work out how much interest you could end up paying.
The figures can be scary. Unless you’re on a 0% deal or have more expensive debts elsewhere, you should always aim to pay off what you owe at the end of the month.
If you can’t do that, pay off as much as you can to keep the total cost down.
There are various ways to apply for a credit card:
By law, you must be given pre-contract credit information in a standard form, known as the SECCI, and a credit agreement to sign – either electronically or on paper.
You must also be given an adequate explanation of the key terms and risks, so you can understand what you’re taking on. If in doubt, ask questions.
If there are FAQs on the website, but these don’t cover the particular question you have, ask the lender directly.
If you’re shopping around and comparing various credit offers, make sure you don’t actually apply for credit until you’ve decided on the best deal.
Every time you make an application for a credit card, it’s noted on your credit file.
If you make too many or your applications are refused, it might suggest that you’re in financial difficulty, which can damage your credit rating.
This might lead other lenders to reject an application or to increase the interest rate at which they are prepared to lend.
If you’re wanting to know whether you are eligible for a card, or the price you’re likely to be offered, ask the card provider for a quote.
They don’t have to provide one – but if they don’t, you might decide to walk away and look elsewhere.
In some cases, they might be able to provide a quote or indicate whether you’re eligible, only after making a credit reference agency (CRA) check.
If you are not yet ready to apply, ask if they can make a ‘quotation search’. This is a search that doesn’t leave a mark on your credit file, rather than an application search, which does.
If they refuse, think carefully about whether you want to go ahead.
Also, if you’re offered a quote, check whether this is guaranteed.
Some might just be indications of likely eligibility or price. Most lenders will reserve the right to change their mind if new information comes to light.
Take these steps to improve the chance of having your application accepted.
If the lender rejects you on the basis of a CRA check, they must tell you that and give you the contact details of the CRA they used.
You can then apply to the CRA for a copy of your credit file for a small fee. In any event, it’s always a good idea to ask the lender why your credit application was declined.
Your CRA shows:
If there’s something wrong on there, talk to the CRA, and if necessary contact the credit provider, to get it put right.
The most important thing is to always get your repayments in on time – late or missed credit card, loan or mortgage repayments can seriously damage your credit rating.
The best way to avoid missing a payment is to pay by Direct Debit.
Other things that affect your credit rating include:
If you’ve been turned down for a card because you’ve got a poor credit rating, one way of rebuilding your credit history is to use a credit builder card.
But these tend to be more expensive, so think carefully before you opt for one – and remember that if you miss payments, or pay only the minimum each month, it could end up making your credit rating worse.
This article is provided by the Money Advice Service.